In order to coordinate the international automotive quality system specifications, a special organization was established in 1996 by the worlds major automobile manufacturers and associations, called the International Automotive Task Force (IATF).
IATF members include the International Organization for Standardization Technical Committee on Quality Management and Quality Assurance (ISO/TC176), the Italian Automobile Industry Association (ANFIA), the French Automobile Manufacturers Committee (CCFA) and the Automobile Equipment Industry Federation (FIEV), and the German Automobile Industry Association (VDA), car manufacturers such as BMW, Daimler Chrysler, Fiat, Ford, General Motors, Renault and Volkswagen.
IATF coordinated the three European standards VDA6.1 (Germany), VSQ (Italy), EAQF (France) and QS9000 (North America). Based on the combination of ISO9001: 2000 version of the standard, it is accredited by ISO/TC176 , Formulated the TS16949:2002 specification.
In October 2016, the International Automotive Task Force (IATF) officially released IATF 16949:2016, which replaced ISO/TS 16949:2009 as the standard for quality management in the automotive industry.
IATF16949 has clear specific content and technical specification requirements. The five core tools (APQP, FMEA, MSA, PPAP, SPC) are quality tools that have been proven to be suitable for the automotive industry. They can improve the quality management level and competitiveness of the automotive industry. Will play an important role.
What are the benefits of this system?
Will become a recognized world-class automotive supplier
Integrate with other management system standards
Bring quality and continuous improvement to the core of the organization
Increase the participation of your leadership team
More use of risk-based thinking to reduce risk and improve opportunity management
IP (INGRESS PROTECTION) protection grade system is drafted by IEC (INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION), which classifies electrical appliances according to their dust and moisture resistance characteristics.
The protection level is usually expressed by two numbers followed by IP, and the numbers are used to clarify the protection level.
The first digit indicates the scope of the equipments resistance to dust, or the degree to which people are protected from hazards in a sealed environment. Represents the level of preventing solid foreign objects from entering, the highest level is 6
The second digit indicates how waterproof the device is. Represents the level of preventing water ingress, the highest level is 9.
The first digit dustproof level after IP
|0||No protection||No special protection against people or things outside|
Prevent the intrusion of solid foreign objects with a diameter greater than 50mm
Prevent the human body (such as the palm of the hand) from accidentally contacting the internal parts of the appliance, and prevent the intrusion of foreign objects of larger size (diameter greater than 50mm)
Prevent the intrusion of solid foreign objects larger than 12.5mm in diameter
Prevent peoples fingers from touching the internal parts of the appliance, and prevent foreign objects of medium size (diameter greater than 12.5mm) from intruding
Prevent the intrusion of solid foreign objects with a diameter greater than 2.5mmsolid foreign objects
Prevent tools, wires and similar small foreign objects with a diameter or thickness greater than 2.5mm from intruding and contacting the internal parts of the appliance
Prevent the intrusion of solid foreign objects larger than 1.0mm in diameter
Prevent tools, wires and similar small foreign objects with a diameter or thickness greater than 1.0mm from intruding and contacting the internal parts of the appliance
Prevent foreign objects and dust
Completely prevent the intrusion of foreign objects. Although the intrusion of dust cannot be completely prevented, the amount of dust intrusion will not affect the normal operation of electrical appliances
Prevent foreign objects and dust
Completely prevent the intrusion of foreign objects and dust
The second digit after IP: Waterproof rating
No special protection against water or humidity
Prevent water lets from immersing
Water lets falling vertically (such as condensed water) will not cause damage to the appliance
When tilted 15 degrees, it can still prevent water lets from immersing
When the appliance is tilted from vertical to 15 degrees, dripping water will not cause damage to the appliance
Prevent sprayed water from immersing
Prevent rain or prevent water sprayed from a direction with an angle of less than 60 degrees perpendicular to the vertical from entering the appliance and causing damage
Prevent splashing water from immersing
Prevent water splashing from all directions from entering the appliance and causing damage
Prevent water jets from immersing
Prevent low-pressure water spray that lasts at least 3 minutes
Prevent big waves from immersing
Prevent a large amount of water spray that lasts at least 3 minutes
Prevent water intrusion during flooding
Prevent 30 minutes of immersion in water up to 1 meter deep
Prevent water intrusion during sinking
Prevent continuous immersion in water deeper than 1 meter
Prevent the immersion of high-pressure water jets
At the water flow rate is 15 ± 1L/min, the water pressure is 8~10MPa, the angle of the spray ring is 0°, 30°, 60°, 90°, the test time is 30s, is resistant to high-pressure water immersion impact
ECE-R65 is the technical standard ECE Regulation requirements of the Economic Commission of Europe (ECE), and R65 corresponds to the regulations for special warning lights for motor vehicles.
The full name of the ECE R65 standard is the Uniform Provisions on Approving Special Warning Lights for Motor Vehicles and Their Trailers, which clearly stipulates the certification application requirements and rules for warning lights.
ECE R65 certification test items mainly include the following:
1. Product name, brand, model, certification number, certification mark
2. Specified value range of color temperature
3. The effective light intensity of horizontal multi-angle, and the range of effective light intensity of vertical multi-angle
4. Frequency (number of flashes per second) specified value range
5. Waterproof grade (IP67, IP68, IP69K), heat resistance, cold start.
R65 products are tested under strict laboratory conditions and a certificate will be issued once approved. The E mark must also be clearly displayed on the product.
The European Traffic Sign Manual regulations require that all working vehicles must be equipped with R65 approved products. It is required that one flashing amber warning light bar or two independent flashing amber warning lights should be installed on the top of the vehicle, with 360° visibility.
ECE R10 certification is a certification system implemented in terms of electromagnetic compatibility for electronic and electrical products used in vehicles. According to the ECE Regulation of the Economic Commission for Europe, the export of automotive electronic and electrical products or the export of supporting vehicles to the member states of the Economic Commission for Europe must pass the E-mark certification. At the same time, the certification standard corresponding to the E-mark certification of most electronic and electrical products is ECE R10.
The prerequisite for ECE R10 certification is that the manufacturer must have a valid ISO9001 or IATF16949 system certificate, otherwise an on-site factory audit is required.
The standard for certification is ECE R10, which is called Uniform Provisions on Approval of Vehicles with respect to Electromagnetic Compatibility. The test project mainly includes the following parts:
1. Broadband test
2. Narrowband test
3. Anti-jamming test
4. Instant conduction interference test
5. Analog waveform.
Police cars, fire trucks, ambulances, engineering rescue vehicles GB 13954-2009 was issued by the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the Peoples Republic of China and the National Standardization Administration of the Peoples Republic of China on November 15th.
This standard specifies the terms and definitions, classification and naming, requirements, test methods, installation, inspection rules, markings, certificates and packaging for police cars, fire trucks, ambulances, and engineering rescue vehicles (hereinafter referred to as marking lamps). .
This standard applies to the installation and use of marking lamps on police cars, fire trucks, ambulances, engineering rescue vehicles and other vehicles.
The light color of the sign lamps for police vehicles should be red or red and blue, the light color of the sign lamps for fire trucks should be red, and the light color of the sign lamps for ambulances should be blue. The color should be yellow.
The luminous intensity level of sign lamps is divided level one and two according to the difference of the main light source, the luminous intensity of sign lamps is expressed by flash energy and peak light intensity respectively.
The luminous frequency f should be between 1Hz～3Hz.
The lighting time t0 should be less than 0.4/f(s)
The extinguishing time should be greater than 160ms
The pulse interval should be less than 100ms.
Road Traffic Hazard Warning Lights GA/T 414-2018 is a public safety industry standard issued by the Ministry of Public Security of the Peoples Republic of China on April 4, 2018.
This standard specifies the classification and naming, technical requirements, test methods, inspection rules, installation requirements, packaging, transportation and storage of road traffic hazard warning lights.
This standard is applicable to road traffic hazard warning lights installed in road sections with hidden dangers of road traffic safety, the scene of road traffic incidents and other places.
Luminous flux refers to the radiant power that the human eye can feel, which is equal to the product of the radiant energy of a certain band per unit time and the relative viewing rate of the band. Because human eyes have different relative viewing rates for light of different wavelengths, when the radiation power of light of different wavelengths is equal, the luminous flux is not equal.
Luminous flux is usually expressed by Φ, the unit of luminous flux is lumen (lm), and the testing instrument is an integrating sphere.
Light intensity is the abbreviation for luminous intensity.
Luminous intensity refers to the luminous flux emitted by a light source in a unit solid angle in a specified direction, that is, the luminous flux density of the light source radiating in a certain direction in space.
The light intensity is usually expressed by I, the unit of light intensity is candela abbreviated cd, and the test instrument is an optical performance test system.
Illuminance is the abbreviation for light intensity.
Illumination intensity refers to the luminous flux of visible light received per unit area. Indicates the intensity of the light and the amount of illumination of the surface area of the object.
The brightness is represented by the symbol E, the unit of brightness is Lux (Lux or lx), and the test instrument is a illuminance meter.
Advantages of LED lights
LED lamps are arc lamps with different glass bulbs. The LED has no filament or fragile shell during operation and transportation. Instant lighting, no warm-up or cooling time. Since there is no warm-up period, this LED lamp can be cycled and turned off without changing the lamp life. LED lamps operate at a much lower temperature than traditional metal halide and high-pressure sodium lamps, and do not contain harmful gases, steam or mercury, making them safer and more energy-efficient. Due to the external heat dissipation of the bulb-like bulb, there is no additional energy waste in the enclosed working area, and the operation risks associated with traditional lighting methods, such as accidental burns and exposure of harmful substances contained in glass bulbs, are eliminated.
The LED lamp adopts SMT welding process, which has high seismic strength and stable product quality
LED light attenuation refers to the deterioration of the quantum efficiency inside the chip due to the increase in the operating temperature of the LED over a period of time, and its luminous flux will be relatively reduced, and this part of the reduction is the light attenuation of the LED.
Currently, LED products have different degrees of light decay, and various LED manufacturers are working on technologies to suppress light decay and their suppression methods. In order to suppress light decay, a package structure with high heat dissipation is adopted.
As a manufacturer of warning lights and work lights, in order to suppress light decay, we use aluminum alloy internal and external heat dissipation structures as much as possible in product design to extend product life and provide long-term shelf life.
When the load of the generator is suddenly disconnected, a transient pulse voltage is induced in the stator winding to prevent it from being reduced at the same time, the excitation current of the generator is large, and the moment the load is suddenly disconnected, the excitation winding will also be Generate a transient high voltage. Therefore, the load dump transient voltage is actually composed of two parts: the transient overvoltage of the stator winding and the transient overvoltage of the excitation winding. (Load dump pulse voltage)
The transient high voltage generated by load dump (commonly known as load dump pulse voltage) will be loaded to any consumer and controller on the vehicle through the wiring harness system, and they will withstand the impact of the load dump voltage. In severe cases, it may cause the use of on-board electrical appliances and The controller is damaged.
For the safety and service life of automotive electronic products, the international standard ISO 7637 puts forward the immunity requirements for automotive electronic products on the power supply, and the impact test and certification of the load dump voltage must be carried out. Provides 5 kinds of test pulses, 5 kinds of 7637 test pulse waveforms:
1. Impulse interference 1: Simulate the inductive load connected in parallel, the transient interference generated when the power is suddenly cut off, the speed is medium, and the energy is medium
2. Pulse interference 2a/2b: Pulse 2a simulates the transient interference caused by a sudden disconnection of a parallel load when the car is running normally, with fast speed and low energy pulse 2b simulates the moment when the ignition is cut off, the DC motor turns power generation Transient interference caused by machine operation, low speed and high energy
3. Pulse interference 3a/3b: Simulate the transient interference generated during the closing and opening of various switches, high speed and low energy
4. Pulse interference 4: Simulate the voltage caused by the start of a large current load on the car
5. Impulse interference 5a/5b: It simulates the large-energy transient pulse interference caused by load dump of a car.
Illuminance: E describes the luminous flux in one square meter, it is used to describe the incident light intensity, the unit of illuminance is Lux (lx).
The light and color performance of LEDs has a strong dependence on temperature, and the rise of temperature will cause its light output to decrease and the shift of the peak wavelength of the spectrum. This effect is especially obvious for high-power LEDs.
LED temperature characteristics are reflected in the products of each link. For LED packages and modules, their light color parameters and their performance temperature are one-to-one correspondence. Once the performance temperature changes, the light color parameters need to be re-measured. LED light source or LED The same is true for light engines. In the design of LED lamps, LED light sources may be used in lighting lamps of different styles, and the application environments of lamps are also different, so their performance is also different. The figure below shows the luminosity performance of a typical LED light source at different temperatures. As the temperature rises, its light output changes significantly.
At present, the measurement of the temperature characteristics of LEDs has been gradually standardized. Related organizations such as CIE, IEC, and IES have successively introduced standards, requiring manufacturers to mark performance temperature test points on their products, and test their light color parameters at the application temperature or provide corresponding parameters. The correction coefficient between different temperatures is the test of LED temperature characteristics.
The car camera is not waterproof enough, it is easy to enter water when it is used outdoors in rain and high pressure cleaning, and the camera generates heat when working The internal water evaporates and atomizes, and it is easy to form water mist on the glass surface of the camera.
1 The working temperature of civilian-level electronic products: -20—+70℃, generally used in toys , Household appliances and other products with good working environment, the price cost is cheaper . The current market displays basically use Taiwan’s MST civilian-level digital video processor devices.2 Working temperature of industrial-grade electronic products: -40—+85℃, generally used in industry Control panels, automotive electronic equipment and other products that are susceptible to external instability, relatively harsh or difficult to locate the working environment, so that the best use effect and long-term reliability and stability can be obtained in the final use process, and the price cost is relatively high. All the monitors of Weishi Company adopt the basic digital video processor devices of American Techwell automotive industry.
1 At present, there are many brands of car waterproof camera in the market, and they all think that there is no problem with waterproofing and the quality can be guaranteed. In fact, car cameras require exquisite size and small size, and waterproof process design requirements are even more difficult. Many vehicle-mounted waterproof cameras have been used for a period of time in the rainy weather and the high-pressure water gun is used for washing the car. The defect rate is 50%, and the waterproof level is only IP66 for short-term rain.
2 Reasons for analysis: poor sealing of glass, front and rear shells, and lead ports due to unreasonable design structure and materials . Some glass surfaces are fogged due to non-standard assembly environmental conditions and craftsmanship. The material of the vehicle waterproof camera is not only required to be made of aluminum alloy, the mold base is flat and the mating surface is flat, and the waterproof glue requires that the hardening and high temperature resistant silica gel does not shift, but also can pass the high pressure water spray, deep diving, pressure resistance, high and low temperature environment tests.
3 Weishi has accumulated more than ten years of waterproof camera structure development and design, material standards, and perfect technology Experience, and independently developed 100% online waterproof, pressure-resistant and anti-fog automatic program-controlled testing equipment, and automatically established program mode detection standards based on the on-site environmental humidity, so that the waterproof camera and waterproof display meet the requirements of fully sealed dehumidification, and the product has passed the third-party certification for waterproofing The grade is IP69K, it is suitable for any climatic environment and the high-pressure water gun car wash is not affected, and the product qualification rate is 100%.